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Track II diplomacy



tragg to diplomacy refers to non-governmental informal and unofficial contacts and activities between private citizens or groups of individuals sometimes called non-state actors it contrasts with track I diplomacy which can be defined as official governmental diplomacy that occur inside official government channels however track 2 diplomacy is not a substitute for track 1 diplomacy rather it is there to assist official actors to manage and resolve conflicts by exploring possible solutions derived from the public view and without the requirements of formal negotiation a bargaining for advantage in addition the term track 1 point 5 diplomacy is used by some analysts to define a situation where official earn on official actors cooperate in conflict resolution history in 1981 Joseph v Montville then u.s State Department employee coined the phrases track 1 and track 2 diplomacy in foreign policy according to Freud which appeared in foreign policy track 1 diplomacy was what diplomats did a formal negotiations between nations conducted by professional diplomats track to diplomacy referred to conflict resolution efforts by professional non governmental conflict resolution practitioners and theorists track 2 has as its object the reduction a resolution of conflict within a country between countries by lowering the anger attention of fear that exists through improved communication and a better understanding of each other's for interview the efforts of these conflict resolution professionals generally operating through nongovernmental organizations and universities arose from the realization by diplomats and others that formal official government-to-government interactions were not necessarily the most effective methods for securing Internet cooperation resolving differences track to diplomacy is unofficial non-structured interaction it is always open-minded often altruistic and strategically optimistic based on best case analysis its underlying assumption is that actual of potential conflict can be resolved or eased by appealing to common human capabilities to respond to good will and reasonableness scientific and cultural exchanges are examples of track to diplomacy the problem most political liberals fail to recognize is that reasonable an altruistic interaction with foreign countries cannot be an alternative the traditional track1 diplomacy with its official posturing and its underlying threat of the use of force both tracks are necessary for psychological reasons and both need each other Montville maintains that there are two basic processes in track do diplomacy the first consists of facilitated workshops that bring members of conflicting groups together to develop personal relationships understand the conflict from the perspective of others and develop joint strategies for solving the conflict the second process involves working to shift public opinion here the task is a psychological one which consists of reducing the sense of victimhood of the party's Andry humanizing the image of the adversary methods for conducting these activities are still evolving as is the thinking around which individuals representing various roles and functions in society and government should be included Montville points out that there is no evidence that conflict resolution workshops would work for the principle political leaders themselves perhaps because they are too tough or even impervious to the humanizing process john macdonald seconds this assumption but feels that it is merely because the leaders are stuck in rigid roles and politically have less access to fluidity than individuals further removed from the top echelon of government in 1986 John McDonald and Diane Bentham and produced conflict resolution tracked to diplomacy a book that compiled the thoughts of several track 1 and track to professionals confirming the need for government to support encourage and work with track to the Department of State refused to print the book for 18 months because the department has a strong defensive nasaw bility and authority to conduct conflict resolution the book was finally published in 1987 and states that the official government apparatus for analyzing international security issues and designing foreign policy has to equip itself to support hand benefit from track to diplomacy as part of the process government analysts must improve the capabilities to understand how history society culture and psychology interact at his special briefing four representatives of non-governmental organizations the u-s department of state's deputy director for political affairs in the office of iraq presented a plea for help from ngos acting under secretary colin powell's initiative and authority the State Department's are our key analysts explained their frustrations in conducting dialogue developing grassroots relationships and rebuilding infrastructure far from admitting that the State Department was limited in its riot ability and authority to conduct conflict resolution they admitted that they couldn't build relationships to spend money fast enough to rebuild Iraq in time to appease the Iraqis and needed help to do it this may not be the ideal situation in terms of NGO and State Department cooperation further exploration of track to diplomacy was published in 1991 as an occasional paper and as a chapter in timing the de-escalation of international conflicts moreover in the same year the arrow and the olive branch which was written as an article in the psychodynamics of international relations Montville adds the third process in track to diplomacy aside from previous two processes of facilitating small workshops and influencing public opinion he claims that the third process is cooperative economic development although it may not seem essential to conflict resolution it is meaningful in the sense that it provides incentives institutional support and continuity to the political and psychological processes in 1996 dr. Luiz Thurmond and John McDonald published multi tried diplomacy a systems approach to peace since then the model has been more robustly developed from the original second tract has been expanded into nine tracks peacemaking through diplomacy conflict resolution commerce personal involvement learning advocacy religion funding information one of the successful track to dialogue processes can be the Oslo Accords of 1993 between Israel and the Palestinian Organization which achieved some remarkable breakthroughs in the israeli-palestinian relationship the contacts began as the track to diplomacy with an unofficial initiative by a norwegian scholar but had transitioned into track one diplomacy by the time it was finished finalized with a handshake between Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLoS Yasser Arafat on the White House lawn another example can be the sustained Jewish Palestinian living room dialogue group which began in 1992 from 2003 to 2007 it partnered with camp to want you to bring hundreds of adults and youth from 50 different towns in Palestine and Israel to successfully live and communicate together at the Palestinian Jewish family peacemakers camp I'll say Shalom Sonia Al Salam

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