The Prophet reached Quba, a suburb, in the
outskirts of Yatrib. As soon as the news of his arrival spread through Yatrib, the people
of Yatrib flocked in to greet the beloved Prophet with great merriment, and joy. In
Quba, the Prophet laid down the foundation for the Quba Mosque.
After staying in Quba for four nights, the Prophet set off towards his final destination
in Yatrib. There he bought a piece of land, and built a mosque, known today as Masjid-e
–Nawabi (meaning the Prophet’s Mosque). The Messenger of The God then laid down the
constitution of Yatrib, later to be known as constitution of Medina. Some of the provisions
of the constitution are shown here. The following clauses of the constitution
was binding upon all the citizens of the state of Medina.
1. The security of God is equal for all groups. 2. All communities shall be the constitutionally
subjected to the state. 3. It shall be incumbent, upon the Non Muslims
to observe and adhere to any peace treaty, they are invited to participate in. Likewise,
it shall also be incumbent upon the Muslims to observe and adhere to any peace treaty,
they are invited to. 4. The valley of Medina is sacred, and there
shall be prohibition of fighting and bloodshed among the various communities of the state.
5. The Muslims, and the Non Muslims, shall be jointly responsible to defend the state
of Medina, against any outside attack. 6. Every party to the treaty, shall be responsible
for the measures and arrangements of the defense of its facing direction.
7. Verily, whoever goes out on a military expedition shall be provided with security,
and whoever stays in Medina (Yatrib) shall have likewise, except those who commit oppression
and violate the contents of this constitution. 8. No party shall have the right to violate
the constitution. Every person, who is guilty of a crime, shall be held responsible for
his act alone. 9. Verily, this constitutional document shall
not protect any traitor or oppressor. The following provisions, in the constitution
was binding exclusively on the Muslims of Medina:
1. Muslims are one community to the exclusion of all men.
2. Muslims shall not leave Muslim destitute. 3. The Muslims shall not leave a debtor among
them, but shall help him in paying his ransom, according to what shall be considered fair.
4. A Muslim who believes in the God, and in the Hereafter, and agrees to the contents
of this document, shall not provide any protection or concession, to those who engage in mischief,
and subversion against this constitution. 5. There shall be collective resistance by
the Muslims against any individual who rises in rebellion, attempts to acquire anything
by force, seeks to spread injustice, or sin or animosity, or corruptions; violates any
pledge or attempts to spread mischief amongst the Muslims. Such collective resistance against
the perpetrator shall occur even if he is the son of anyone of them.
6. Whenever Muslims differ on a matter, it must be referred to the God and the Messenger
of the God. 7. The God’s protection is one; the least
of them may give protection to a stranger on their behalf.
8. The peace granted by the believers shall be one. If there is any war in the way of
Allah, no Muslims shall make any treaty of peace (with the enemy) apart from other Muslims,
unless that is based on equality and fairness among all. The constitution had the following provisions
for the Non Muslims (that is the Jews and the Polytheists and other faiths in Medina) 1. The Non Muslim shall be considered a community
along with the Muslims. They shall be guaranteed the right of religious freedom, along with
the Muslims. The right shall be conferred on their associates, as well as themselves,
except those who are guilty of oppression, or the violators of treaties. They will bring
evil only on themselves. 2. Non Muslim members have equal political
and cultural rights as Muslims. They will have autonomy, and freedom of religion. 3. The Non Muslim will be responsible for
their expenditure, and the Muslims theirs. 4. If attacked by a third party, citizens
of Medina (Yatrib) shall come to the assistance of the other. 5. Each party shall hold council with the
other, and the wronged party should be assisted. 6. All citizens of Medina (Yatrib) shall contribute
to defending Medina (Yatrib), in case of a foreign attack in its respective area.
7. The Non Muslims shall contribute to the cost of war, so long as they are fighting
alongside the Muslims. 8. Non Muslims will not be obliged to take
part in religious wars of the Muslims. 9. Citizens of Medina (Yatrib), Non Muslims
and Muslims should boycott Meccan Polytheists commercially, they shall also abstain from
extending any support to them. 10. Medina (Yatrib) shall be a sanctuary for
the people of this document. The Messenger of the God then changed the
name of Yatrib, to Medina Munwara, meaning the city of enlightenment and Medina became
an Islamic state.